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MEXICO- The Aztec Empire and its destruction

THE AZTEC ESTABLISHMENT OF MEXICO CITY

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It was not until the arrival of the Aztecs, a mysterious tribe of people who came in from the north, that the area acquired its importance.The Aztecs migrated following an ancient legend that prophesied that they would find the site for their new city in a place where they would see a mythical vision fulfilled: an eagle eating a snake while perched atop a prickly cactus(Nopal).

Wandering from place to place, like the Jews of Israel, guided by their oracle, the Aztecs eventually came across this land, on what was then a small swampy island in Lake Tex-coco in the Valley of Mexico and in 1325, built their capital Tenochtitlan (Nahuatl name for the city) of the expanding Aztec Empire and their civilisation. The Mexican legend says that Aztecs were persuaded by their war-god Huitzilopochtli or Mexitl (from whom was derived the name Mexica or Azteca and the name adopted by its people, to settle on this swampy island.

Undeterred by the inhospitable land, they invented the chinampa system to dry the areas by dividing them in small plots, and once that achieved, they built their capital city, which stood on an artificial lagoon. The Aztec built their first temple in honour of their bloodthirsty god Huitzilopochtli, who had led them to this promised land, as Moses led the Jews of Israel. The huts were made of reeds and mud (cañas y barro) , which grew in the swampy land, and called them Xacali, which later was called Jacales ( shanties of the poor peóns) by the Spaniards. Peóns were ensalved by the Spaniards to work on their haciendas and silver mines. Much of the early construction of huts was of caña y barro.

At the centre of Tenochtitlan was a large walled precinct, the focus of religious activity, containing the main temples , dedicated to Huitzilopitchli ( a deity of war, sun, human sacrifice and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan), Tlaloc the Rain God, and Quetzalcoatl, the white man, the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. Aztec and mythical Maya built stone temples, pyramids, great chambers and tombs, inscribed hieroglyphics and made artifacts. Even today the mythical civilisations of Aztec, Incas, Toltec and Maya are admired by us. The Toltec were the founders of Teotihuacan and Cholula, the historical pyramids for their worship, human and animal sacrifice, and who were termed as despotic and barbaric, uncivilised noble savages by the Spanish conquistadors.

Mexican believed that Quetzalcoatl, the "Feathered Serpent", a white man of an imposing personality and noble features, a foreigner, who had come to live with them and taught them the religion of living simple and austere life, in which the sacrifice of humans and animals was forbidden, who after living among them for more than twenty years, promising that he would one day return, mysteriously disappeared in the direction of the Rising Sun.

This belief that he would return from the east in a One Reed year led the Aztec sovereign Montezuma II to regard the Spanish conqueror Hernan Cortez and his comrades as messengers of the Sun God, welcomed them, protected them, because 1519, the year in which the Spanish landed on the Mexican coast, was a One Reed year (Aztec calendar, dating system based on the Mayan calendar).

Mexican were awed at the tall ships with white sails, which appeared on their horizon, men dressed in strange costumes and riding strange animals (Mexican had never seen horses before) and strange vehicles (gun carriages) and with superstitious reverence, fell at their feet.

Between 1519-1521 when Hernan Cortez invaded Mexico. the city of Tenochtitlan was besieged several times. In order to create space for their cavalry to manoeuvre, the conquistadors pulled down most of the city's buildings and thus largely destroying the city. Mexico City was built on top of the ruins of the city. During the siege, the city was ravaged by small pox which was brought to the country by the Spanish and the Aztec King Cuitlahuac, died during the siege. In 1521 the last emperor Cuauhtemoc (Guatemoc) the defender of Tenochtitlan, surrendered to the Spanish invaders. Thus ended the mighty empire of the Aztec.

In the 17th century, the Spaniards had the brilliant idea of draining the Lake but discontinued it later. In consequence, in 1629 the city of Mexico was flooded. Similar flood occurred in 1622. Many thousands poor Mexicans living in los Jacales (shanties) perished in these floods. The whole city has been gradually sinking since then.

Posted by The Islander 10:48 Archived in Mexico Tagged mountains lakes beaches churches art buildings landscape monuments backpacking air-travel Comments (0)

MEXICO-II

People of Mexico

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Mexico, Lanscape, Mexico travel, people, mountains, Mexico monuments, Mexico pyramids, Mexico rainforest, forests, Mexico ancient cites, Mexico ancient monuments, Mexico history, Mexico cuture.


Mexicans men and women, are of short stature, men stout and muscular when young and fat when older. As for women, the señorita of the north was difficult to find in the urban Mexico cities, instead big breasted and wide hipped females without any sexual charm or attraction.

I found Mexicans well dressed, men in business suits and women in skirts and blouses and jackets. Women and girls were casually dressed in a halter tops, or a sleeveless T-shirt, and a short skirt or Shorts. Office workers and bureaucrats in black suits, students in uniforms. Men wore well polished shoes with high heels, and had well trimmed, short cut hair. I also found Mexicans unsmiling and incurious people, devoid of any expressions on their faces. Seroius and sombre expressions. Mexican are courteous people but the elegance and grace and gallantry of the Spanish which wafted over the ocean, was no longer evident.

Ethnically Mexicans are divided in different classes, people from Spanish and European descendants, who considered themselves of pure and white blood, their descendants the Creoles, then Mestizos (mixed blood) and los Indios (the Indians), who were the direct descendants of original people who were the occupants of the country in pre-Hispanic times. There existed many tribes and in order of population, Nahuatlan, Zapotecan, Mayan Mistecan could be mentioned. The Mayan and Nahuatlan people were the formost tribes who have left, in the vally of Mexico and inYucatan, the monuments and cultural sites, their long lasting history. We were told by the guides that there are still numerous monuments in stone, scattered in the forests of Mexico, which are still to be discovered.

Columbus, who was searching for the sea route to India, erroneously thought that he had reached the shores of India and called the natives los Indios, name which came to be termed with contempt by the Europeans and Americans. The native tribes of Peru and Brazil are also called Indios, as are the indians of India by the Spanish. In Mexico there are many different tribes of Indians and Zapotec and Mistecas comprise more than half the population of the country.

As has happened in many countries like Venezuela, Peru and Chile and Argentina in South America, in Philippines, Malaya, Indonesia etc, in South East Asia, the so called white upper class people controlled the large part of the properties and businesses, administrative jobs etc, although the majority of the population consisted of people of mixed or Indian blood. These people for centuries, have been the backbone of the mining industry and agriculture. In the olden days you would find the well heeled people in Europeans dress and the working class in the garb of a peon, with a collarless shirt,very tight white trousers, colourful cloth belt (la faja) some times a bolero short jacket, reaching up to the waist, a colourful blanket (la manta) thrown over his shoulder. And a hat or el sombrero to shield him from the merciless desert heat.

Although the working and and labour class (peons) suffered from the Spanish greed for gold and silver, were the victims of their injustice and cruel slavery, which today would be described as crimes against humanity and holocaust, Mexican Indians do not suffer from any social and political discrimination or marginalisation. President Juarez and General Porfirio Diaz, the autocrat President, were from Zapotec and Misteca tribes respectively. Many people with whom I talked about the Spanish, were still angry at the uncivilised and barberic way the Spanish treated the Mexicans. And Spanish have never apologised for their brutal and inhuman treatment of the Mexican Indians.

Posted by The Islander 03:08 Archived in Mexico Tagged waterfalls mountains lakes beaches churches buildings landscape monuments backpacking air-travel Comments (0)

Mexico-Mexico City-I

Mexico City Centre


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Key words: travel, tourism, food, sightseeing, places to see, hotel accommodation, places to stay, Mexico City.

30/09/2008. In the morning when we got up, sweating in the heat, and on opening the tap, I found that there was just a trickle of water dripping and the same was with the shower. No water. Some how we managed, soaking the towels with the trickle of water, cleaned our teeth, wiped our bodies and went down to the reception desk. The concierge told us that there was acute shortage of water in the city and at no time during the day or night, should we expect to have water for a proper shower.

So we came out of the hostel and started walking towards the city centre, which was not far off. And to have breakfast. So walking and asking, we came to calle Bolivar and found Hotel Principal at No.29. Hostel Isabel and Hotel Principal, both recommended by the Lonely Planet. On inspection, we found that the rooms were larger, and the one we selected, had two wide comfortable beds, a bigger bathroom and bigger shower-head too. And when I opened the tap, water came out gushing. The daily rate was 340 Pesos. So we booked the room for two days, went back to Hostel Isabel, collected our backpacks and deposited them in the newly selected one, and came down to explore the city centre.

The city was full of shops selling fresh juice,tacos & tortillas, chorizo and guacamole, all fried food and not fit for breakfast. At that time Alex was on vegetarian diet and we found that there was nothing by way of vegetarian food. In Mexico we found that except guacamole, cabbage and tomatoes, there was no other vegetable and it was very hard for him to eat anything. An other thing we found was, that there was no fresh baked bread, only Bimbo brand sliced bread. Mexican do not eat bread.

At ten minutes walking distance, we came to the historic city centre (Centro Historico) known as El Zocalo. Approaching the centre( La Plaza de la Constitution), a very large plaza indeed, from Avenida 5 de Mayo, you see this majestic and elegant Palacio Presidencial and the Parliament building in front, and the magnificent Cathedral y Sagrario Metropolitano, on your left.

The sight was amazing and impressive, bustling with people, entering and coming out from the Cathedral, priests listening to confessions of devotees, sitting in booths open to the public, Mass being chanted. I asked Alex to take a photo of the priest listening to the confession of an old lady, he however, replied that a confession was personal and private, although it was open to public to see and listen.

The 18th September was the National Independence Day and the whole plaza was still decorated with light bulbs and Mexican flags, flying on many building surrounding the plaza.

The Palacio Nacional (National Palace) is a historic building, on one side is the Presidential residence, which was cordoned off and guarded by military soldiers, and on the other side was the gallery full of murals painted by Diego Rivera, Mexico's most famous artist, painter and muralist. The paintings depict the country's long journey through wars and revolutions, military rule and independence. He sought to make art that reflected the lives of the working class and native peoples of Mexico.

The site of the Presidential Palace is, where once stood the palace of Montezuma. The city and its environs boasted of beautiful haciendas, towers and trees, its castle of Chapultepec and in the distance the gleaming snowy mountain peak of Ixtaccihuatl "The Sleeping Woman".

Posted by The Islander 08:35 Archived in Mexico Tagged waterfalls sunsets_and_sunrises mountains beaches churches art buildings landscape monuments backpacking air-travel Comments (0)

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